Tuesday, October 27, 2009

Mary Cassatt, 1844-1926: She Broke Social Barriers With her Art. From Voice of America.



VOICE ONE:

I'm Bob Doughty.

VOICE TWO:

And I'm Faith Lapidus with PEOPLE IN AMERICA in VOA Special English. Today we tell about the nineteenth century artist Mary Cassatt. She was best known for her beautifully expressive paintings of women and children. Cassatt spent her life working to change traditional beliefs about art and a woman's role in society.

(MUSIC)

VOICE ONE:

Mary Cassatt was born in eighteen forty-four near Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. Her father, Robert, was a wealthy investor. Her mother, Katherine, had a deep knowledge of books, art and the French language. When Mary was seven years old, her family moved to Europe for several years.

VOICE TWO:

Mister Cassatt wanted his children to experience European education and culture. The Cassatt family lived in Paris, France for about two years before moving to Heidelberg in modern day Germany. In eighteen fifty-five, Mary's brother Robbie died. Mister Cassatt decided it was time to return to the United States. But first, the family stopped once more in Paris.

It was an exciting time to be in that city. Mary and her family visited the Universal Exhibition. This event showed the success of French art and industry. Mary would have seen important works by the most famous French artists of the time.

VOICE ONE:

She might also have seen the works of a revolutionary painter, Gustave Courbet. Courbet's art was criticized for its realism. So, he was not permitted to show his work in the exhibit. Instead, he created his own exhibit space nearby.

At an early age Mary saw the different movements within the French art world. She would one day be part of this world and would make her own rebellious art.

(MUSIC)

VOICE TWO:

During the nineteenth century in the United States, wealthy women usually did not have careers. Women generally learned how to care for a house. They might learn to play music, sew and paint. But Mary Cassatt was different. She believed that her training in art was much more than a fun activity. She saw art as her future. In eighteen sixty, at the age of seventeen, Mary began classes at the Pennsylvania Academy of the Fine Arts. Her father did not approve of her decision to become an artist. But Mary did not let this stop her.


Mary Cassatt's portrait of herself:



VOICE ONE:

Mary Cassatt worked very hard and was a good student. But she realized that to become a fully trained artist, she had to go to Europe to study. Travel was impossible during the four year American Civil War that began in eighteen sixty-one. So, it was not until eighteen sixty-six that she returned to Paris.

For four years, Mary studied in Paris and other smaller towns in France. Because she was a woman, she could not study at the French Academy of Fine Arts in Paris. Instead, she created her own program of study.

VOICE TWO:

Cassatt worked hard copying the great paintings hanging in the Louvre museum. She also studied with different teachers. In eighteen sixty-eight, one of Mary Cassatt's paintings was accepted into the Paris Salon. This show was operated by the government-controlled French Academy of Fine Arts. Two years later, the Salon accepted another of her paintings. Her career as a successful artist had begun.

(MUSIC)

VOICE ONE:

In eighteen seventy, Mary Cassatt returned home to Pennsylvania. But life at home was not easy. Her father was no longer willing to support Mary's artistic career. She tried showing her paintings in New York City, but no one bought them. She exhibited her art in Chicago, only to lose them all in the Great Chicago Fire of eighteen seventy-one.

VOICE TWO:

Luckily, a religious center in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania hired her to copy two famous religious paintings that hung in Parma, Italy. Mary Cassatt had found a way to return to her beloved Europe and be paid to work. In Parma, she soon began to receive wide critical praise for her art.

VOICE ONE:

Cassatt continued to have her works accepted in the Paris Salon. But she began to tire of the traditional values of the official art world. The Salon was very set in its ways. It rejected works that showed bright colors, unusual subjects, or any form of experimentation. Cassatt had to make a decision: Would she paint in a way that received public approval or in a way that she found interesting and exciting?

She found her answer in a group of rebellious painters known as the Impressionists.

(MUSIC)

VOICE TWO:

Mary Cassatt once said that she used to go to a Paris art seller's shop. She would flatten her nose against the window to take in all that she could of the art of Edgar Degas. She said his paintings changed her life.

In eighteen seventy-seven, Edgar Degas came to her studio and asked her to join his group of artists who called themselves the Independents. This group later became known as the Impressionists. These artists included Claude Monet, Auguste Renoir, and Camille Pissarro.


A detail of “A Woman with a Red Zinnia”, painted in 1891



VOICE ONE:

Degas and the other artists had decided that they would no longer follow the rules and restrictions of the Paris Salon. These artists refused to submit art to the Salon. Instead, they formed their own exhibition in eighteen seventy-four. Today, the works in this historical show are some of the most famous paintings in the world. But at the time, many people condemned their art.

VOICE TWO:

Degas and the Impressionists were interested in painting the effects of light, and how the human eye sees subjects. The Impressionists used bright colors, rough brush strokes and thick paint to show light and movement in its many forms. They also painted subjects of everyday life. Traditional artists generally painted imagined scenes from history or literature.

Mary Cassatt said this about Edgar Degas' invitation to join the Impressionists: "I accepted with joy. I hated conventional art. I began to live."

(MUSIC)

VOICE ONE:

Cassatt spent two years producing works to show in the Impressionists' next exhibit in eighteen seventy-nine. During this period, her parents moved to Paris. Finally, Robert Cassatt had accepted his daughter's skill, and praised her growing success.

VOICE TWO:

Paintings from this period include one of her mother reading a newspaper. It is called "Reading Le Figaro."



Mary Cassatt's loose brush work skillfully captures the effect of the sunlight in the room.

In "Woman and Child Driving"



she masters the effect of outdoor light and draws attention to a child's glowing face. Her works show people in private moments. Her subjects act naturally, and are sometimes caught in movement.


A detail of the print “Maternal Caress” from 1891:



VOICE ONE:

Mary Cassatt did not stay with the Impressionists for long. She chose freedom over being part of a set art movement. In the eighteen nineties Cassatt started to experiment with making prints. She was influenced by a series of prints from Japan. She repeated their simple but very modern forms in her own prints. They include "La Toilette," an image of a woman bathing.

In "Maternal Caress," a few simple lines express the deep love of a mother for her child. Mary Cassatt sold many copies of her prints when she exhibited them in Paris. And, she would continue to explore the subject of mothers and children in her paintings.

VOICE TWO:

In "Baby Reaching for an Apple"



Cassatt shows a mother gently holding her child as the baby looks with wonder at the fruit. "The Boating Party" shows a mother and child in a small boat. The diagonal angle of the painting is very bold and inventive.

Cassatt held another successful exhibit in eighteen ninety-three. One critic said that no artist had painted "the poem of the family" with such feeling. Mary Cassatt had become one of the most successful artists of her time.


A detail of “The Boating Party”, painted around 1893



VOICE ONE:

Cassatt bought a house in the French countryside and used her success to help others. She advised young artists. She also helped wealthy American art collectors choose fine works of art by Impressionist painters. She believed it was important that Americans be able to study such fine art at home. Thanks to her efforts, many Impressionist paintings became part of American art collections. Cassatt also worked hard to support women's right to vote in the United States.

VOICE TWO:

Mary Cassatt won many top awards, but she refused to accept most of them. She said she was an early member of an independent art movement and was against juries, medals and awards. Cassatt continued working and travelling into her late sixties. She later was forced to stop painting because of her failing eyesight.

VOICE ONE:

Mary Cassatt died in nineteen twenty-six at the age of eighty-two. She spent most of her life working to change traditional beliefs about art, artists and a woman's professional role in society. Today, her paintings are in the top museum collections in the world.

(MUSIC)

VOICE TWO:

This program was written and produced by Dana Demange. I'm Faith Lapidus.

VOICE ONE:

And I'm Bob Doughty. For transcripts, mp3s and podcasts of our shows go to voaspecialenglish.com. Join us again next week for PEOPLE IN AMERICA in VOA Special English.

COMPREHENSION CHECK

1. During the nineteenth century, wealthy women didn't have ______ .
a. children
b. careers
c. money
d. husbands

2. Mary Cassatt's art was deeply influenced by ________ .
a. German woodcuts
b. traditional painting
c. impressionism
d. realism

3. Mary Cassatt wanted to her painting to be a __________ .
a. profession
b. hobby
c. temporary job
d. part-time job

4. As a child, Mary Cassatt and her family lived in France and ___________ .
a. Spain
b. Switzerland
c. New York
d. Germany

5. Mary's father didn't approve of her decision to be __________ .
a. a mother
b. an artist
c. a student
d. a traveler

6. Two of Mary Cassatt's paintings were accepted by the ____________ .
a. The Universal Exhibition
b. Louvre
c. Modern Museum of Art
d. Paris Salon

7. ______________ , a painter she greatly admired, invited her into the impressionist group.
a. Auguste Renoir
b. Edgar Degas
c. Leonardo Da Vinci
d. Gustave Courbet

8. The subject of many of Mary Cassatt's paintings is women and ___________ .
a. painters
b. children
c. soldiers
d. students

9. Another name for this selection could be _________ .
a. "Traditional Art"
b. "A Great Woman Painter"
c. "Impressionism in the 19th Century"
d. "Art of Paris and Germany"

10. This story is mainly about ________________ .
a. the art of Mary Cassatt
b. the female perspective on art
c. impressionism in America
d. European influences on American painters

Mary Cassatt in Wikipedia

Mary Cassatt's paintings as a slide show with music from Youtube:



Mary Cassatt in Wikipedia



Saturday, October 17, 2009

Edward Hopper's Mysterious World from Voice of America

"Hotel Lobby" 1943, by Edward Hopper


VOICE ONE:

I’m Shirley Griffith.

VOICE TWO:

And I’m Doug Johnson with People in America in VOA Special English. Today we tell about artist Edward Hopper. He painted normal objects and people in interesting and mysterious ways.

(MUSIC)

VOICE ONE:

Edward Hopper's "Cape Cod Morning"
In June of two thousand-six, visitors entered the redesigned Smithsonian American Art Museum in Washington, D.C. for the first time. When these people walked into the building, they saw two simple, colorful paintings. These paintings showed normal scenes from American life. But they looked mysterious and beautiful. American artist Edward Hopper painted both of these famous pictures.

VOICE TWO:

Edward Hopper was born in eighteen eighty-two in Nyack, a small town in New York state. From a young age, Edward knew he wanted to be a painter. His parents were not wealthy people. They thought Edward should learn to paint and make prints to advertise for businesses. This kind of painting is called commercial art. Edward listened to his mother and father. In nineteen hundred, he moved to New York City to study commercial art. However, he also studied more serious and artistic kinds of painting.

VOICE ONE:

One of Hopper’s teachers was Robert Henri, a famous American painter in the early twentieth century. Henri was a leader of a group of artists who called themselves the Ashcan School painters. The Ashcan artists liked to paint normal people and objects in realistic ways. Henri once expressed his ideas about painting this way: “Paint what you feel. Paint what you see. Paint what is real to you.”

Edward Hopper agreed with many of these ideas about art. He told people that Henri was his most important teacher.

VOICE TWO:

Hopper studied with Henri in New York City for six years. During those years, Hopper dreamed of going to Europe. Many painters there were making pictures in ways no one had ever seen before. Many of them had begun to paint pictures they called “abstract.” The artists liked to say these works were about ideas rather than things that existed in the real world. Their paintings did not try to show people and objects that looked like the ones in real life. Most American artists spent time in Europe. Then they returned to the United States to paint in this new way.

VOICE ONE:

With help from his parents, Hopper finally traveled to Europe in nineteen-oh-six. He lived in Paris, France for several months. He returned again in nineteen-oh-nine and nineteen-ten.

"Early Sunday Morning" 1930
Unlike many other people, however, Hopper was not strongly influenced by the new, abstract styles he found there. “Paris had no great or immediate impact on me,” he once said. At the end of these travels, he decided that he liked the realistic methods he had learned from Robert Henri.

(MUSIC)

VOICE TWO:

When Edward Hopper returned from Paris for the last time, he moved into a small apartment in the Greenwich Village area of New York City. He took a job making prints and paintings for businesses. However, the paintings he made outside of his job were not helping him earn money or recognition. He had a show of his work at a gallery in New York. However, most people were not interested in his simple, realistic style. Very few people bought his paintings.

VOICE ONE:

Things began to improve in nineteen twenty-three. He began a love relationship with an artist named Jo Nivison. Soon they married. His wife sometimes said that Edward tried to control her thoughts and actions too much. However, most people who knew them said they loved each other very much. They stayed married for the rest of their lives. Also, Jo was the model for all of the women in Hopper’s paintings.

Success in art soon followed this success in love. In nineteen twenty-four, Hopper had the second show of his paintings. This time, he sold many pictures. Finally, at age forty-three, he had enough money to quit his job painting for businesses. He could now paint what he loved. Edward and Jo bought a car and began to travel around the country to find interesting subjects to paint.

(MUSIC)

VOICE TWO:

"The House by the Railroad"
Most people say that Hopper’s nineteen twenty-five painting “The House by the Railroad” was his first mature painting. This means that it was the first painting that brought together all of his important techniques and ideas.

“The House by the Railroad” shows a large, white house. The painting does not show the bottom of the house. It is blocked by railroad tracks. Cutting scenes off in surprising ways was an important part of Hopper’s style. He became famous for paintings that are mysterious, that look incomplete or that leave viewers with questions.

Shadows make many parts of the home in “The House by the Railroad” look dark. Some of the windows look like they are open, which makes the viewer wonder what is inside the house. However, only dark, empty space can be seen through the windows. Strange shadows, dark spaces, and areas with light were important parts of many Hopper paintings.

There are no people in the painting, and no evidence of other houses nearby. Hopper was famous for showing loneliness in his art. People often said that, even when there were many people in his paintings, each person seems to be alone in his or her own world.

VOICE ONE:

During the great economic depression of the nineteen thirties, many people saw Hopper’s lonely, mysterious paintings of everyday subjects. They liked the pictures because they seemed to show life honestly, without trying to make it happier or prettier than it really was. As a result, Hopper continued to sell many paintings during those years, even though most Americans were very poor.

VOICE TWO:

"Nighthawks" Click on the
painting to enlarge it.
In nineteen forty-two, Hopper painted his most famous work, “Nighthawks.” The painting shows four people in an eating-place called a diner late at night. They look sad, tired, and lonely. Two of them look like they are in a love relationship. But they do not appear to be talking to each other. The dark night that surrounds them is mysterious and tense. There is no door in the painting, which makes the subjects seem like they might be trapped.

Hopper painted “Nighthawks” soon after the Japanese bomb attack against the United States at Pearl Harbor in Hawaii. Many people thought the painting showed the fear and unhappiness that most Americans were feeling after the attack. The painting became very famous. Today, most Americans still recognize it. The painting now hangs in a famous museum in Chicago, Illinois.

VOICE ONE:

“Nighthawks” was not Edward Hopper’s only great success. In nineteen fifty, he finished a painting called “Cape Cod Morning.” It shows a brightly colored house in the country. In the middle of the painting, a woman leans on a table and looks out a window. She looks very sad. However, nothing in the painting gives any idea about why she would be sad. Today this painting hangs in a special place in the Smithsonian Museum of American Art in Washington. It is one the paintings we noted at the beginning of this program.

(MUSIC)

VOICE TWO:

Edward Hopper began to struggle with his art during the nineteen fifties and sixties. He had trouble finding interesting subjects. When he did find good things to paint, he struggled to paint them well.

At the same time, the artistic community became less interested in realistic paintings. In the nineteen fifties, the Abstract Expressionist style became very popular. These artists refused to have subjects to paint. They wanted to “paint about painting” and “paint about ideas.” They thought Hopper’s style was no longer modern or important. As a result, the paintings he did complete met less success than during the earlier years.

Edward Hopper died in nineteen sixty-seven. His wife Jo died less than a year later.

"Cape Cod Afternoon"
Many years after his death, Hopper’s work is still popular in this country and outside America. In two thousand four, the famous Tate Art Gallery in London had a show of his paintings. This show brought the second-largest number of visitors of any show in the history of the museum. Today, people say Edward Hopper was one of the best American artists of the twentieth century.

(MUSIC)

VOICE ONE:

This program was written by Sarah Randle and produced by Mario Ritter. I’m Shirley Griffith.

VOICE TWO:

And I’m Doug Johnson. You can read, listen to and download this program at our Web site, voaspecialenglish.com. Join us again next week for People in America in VOA Special English.

COMPREHENSION CHECK

1. When Edward Hopper visited Paris in 1906, ______________ .
a: he became heavily influenced by abstract art
b: he felt no particular attraction to abstract art
c: he decided the methods of Robert Henri were old fashioned
d: he decided to never visit Paris again

2. When Edward Hopper’s parents saw that the young Edward was interested in painting, ________________ .
a: they were disappointed
b: they suggested he become a lawyer instead
c: they suggested that he become a commercial artist
d: they told him he should study abstract art

3. The following is not one of Hopper’s techniques for making his paintings seem mysterious:
a: using shadows
b: painting people who seem to be alone
c: cutting off the view of the painting in surprising ways
d: painting realistic objects

4. Edward Hopper’s paintings sold well in the Depression because __________ .
a: by that time, he was a famous artist
b: he sold his paintings at a discount so people could afford them
c: people appreciated his honest representation of life
d: there were very few competing artists at that time

5. The people in the diner in Hopper’s painting “Nighthawks” look ______________
a: sad, tired, and lonely
b: hungry for a large breakfast
c: afraid to leave the diner because of what might be outside
d: angry about the slow service

6. Edward Hopper’s paintings became less popular in the 1950s and 60s because _____________ .
a: there were other painters who were more realistic
b: abstract expressionism became more popular
c: he was unfaithful towards his wife
d: his paintings were considered less mysterious than before

7. Many years after his death, Edward Hopper’s paintings are ______________ .
a: seldom exhibited
b: still very popular, but only in Europe
c: still very popular both in the U.S. and in other countries
d: not considered important or modern

8. _____________ said, “Paint what you feel, what you see, what is real to you.”
a: the abstract expressionists
b: Robert Henri and the Ashcan Group
c: Edward Hopper’s parents
d: Edward Hopper’s wife

9. Another name for this article could be “______________.”
a: The Life and Art of Edward Hopper
b: The Realistic School of Art
c: How to Create Mysterious Paintings
d: Edward Hopper’s Career in Commercial Art

10. This article is mainly about _________________ .
a: one of America’s finest artists
b: the loss of Edward Hopper’s popularity
c: why Edward Hopper was able to paint what he felt
d: the extremely changeable tastes in art


A video tribute to Edward Hopper from Youtube:



Wednesday, October 7, 2009

Celia Cruz, 1925-2003: "The Queen of Salsa" from Voice of America


VOICE ONE:

I'm Steve Ember.

VOICE TWO:

And I'm Faith Lapidus with People in America in VOA Special English. Today, we tell about Celia Cruz. She was one of the most influential and energetic female singers in the history of Afro-Cuban Music. More than seventy of her albums help document the history of the music known as salsa.

(MUSIC)

VOICE ONE:

That song was "Tu Voz", which means "Your Voice" in Spanish. It was a hit song performed by Celia Cruz and her band, La Sonora Matancera, in nineteen fifty-two. They performed many hit songs. They toured all over the world together spreading the sounds of Cuba. "Tu Voz" is about love and desire. The music helps to transport you to the sunny streets of Havana, Cuba. Like most of the songs of Celia Cruz, this music makes you want to start dancing.

VOICE TWO:

Celia Cruz was born in nineteen twenty-five in Havana, Cuba. Her parents were not musicians. But music played an important role in her childhood. Her grandmother once said that Celia could sing before she could talk. Celia would often sing at school and community gatherings. Later, as a teenager Celia started competing in singing contests. She won many competitions.

Her father wanted her to be a teacher. But Celia wanted a career in music. She later said that she was both a singer and a teacher. She said that her music taught the world about Cuban culture and the happiness of living life to the fullest.

VOICE ONE:

Music is an important part of the cultural life of Cubans. During the nineteen thirties and forties in Havana, Celia heard many kinds of music. Famous music groups and singers would perform live on the radio. She could listen to dance music like the rumba, mambo and guaracha. These kinds of songs were influenced by the music of Africa and Spain. This Cuban music or "son" is defined by the beat of the drum and the call of the singer. It is music made for dancing.

VOICE TWO:

In nineteen forty-seven Celia started studying at the Cuban Conservatory of Music. She was discovered a few years later by the music group La Sonora Matancera. This group of was one of Cuba's most famous orchestras. Their lead singer had just left the band, so they needed a new performer. When the group heard Celia's voice, they hired her immediately.

At first, listeners missed the band's former singer. But soon, they fell in love with the powerful voice of Celia Cruz. Here is another of her songs recorded with La Sonora Matancera. It is called "Caramelos". Cruz tells about a candy seller singing in the streets about his delicious goods.

(MUSIC)

VOICE ONE:

In the early nineteen sixties, great political changes took place in Cuba. After a revolution, the communist leader Fidel Castro took power in the country. Like many other Cubans, Celia Cruz decided to move to the United States. She later became an American citizen and never again returned to her country.

A few years later, she married the trumpet player of her band, Pedro Knight. Soon Cruz and her husband separated from La Sonora Matancera. They had played together for fifteen years. But it was time to explore new musical choices.

VOICE TWO:

Celia Cruz lived in New York City where Latin music could be heard in many forms. Many musicians were experimenting with mixing different traditions, rhythms, and styles. The music known as salsa was a combination of Cuban "son" with other Latin sounds. This music expressed the happiness and the pain of life in Latin American communities.

Celia Cruz soon became the voice of salsa. She performed and made records with many musicians. She would wear wildly colorful clothing with tall shiny shoes. Her face was often painted with bright makeup.

And her dancing was as energetic as her voice. Here is a recording of Cruz singing "Isadora" with Johnny Pacheco and the Fania All Stars.

(MUSIC)

VOICE ONE:

During the nineteen seventies Celia Cruz became famous for calling out "AzĂșcar!" while singing. This word means "sugar" in Spanish. Cruz would shout out this word to energize her band and her audience. You can hear her saying this word in many recordings.

Celia Cruz always enjoyed taking on new projects. She sang many songs with musicians that were not salsa performers. For example, she sang with the hip-hop singer Wyclef Jean on one of his albums. She also sang with musicians such as David Byrne and Patti Labelle. Cruz also appeared in several movies. One of her most well known roles was in the film "The Mambo Kings" in nineteen ninety-two. Not surprisingly, Cruz plays the part of a salsa singer. Here is Cruz performing the song "Guantanamera" from the sound track of this movie.

(MUSIC)

VOICE TWO:

Celia Cruz enjoyed a full and successful life. She won many Grammy Awards. With her seventy albums, she became the most famous voice of salsa music. She was a strong and powerful woman in a music industry made up mostly of men. Celia Cruz also used her fame to help other people.

In two thousand two, her husband started the Celia Cruz Foundation. This organization gives money to poor students who want to study music. It also helps cancer patients.

In two thousand three, Celia Cruz died as a result of brain cancer. Her life was celebrated at two funerals. Hundreds of thousands of people attended the funerals. Actors, politicians, musicians as well as thousands of fans attended to say goodbye to the Queen of Salsa.

We leave you with the song "Rie y Llora" from Celia Cruz's last album. It is a song about laughing and crying. Cruz reminds her listeners to live their lives fully and enjoy every moment.

(MUSIC)

VOICE ONE:

This program was written and produced by Dana Demange. I'm Steve Ember.

VOICE TWO:

And I'm Faith Lapidus. Join us again next week for PEOPLE IN AMERICA in VOA Special English.

COMPREHENSION CHECK

1. Celia Cruz was born in ______________ .
a. New York
b. Spain
c. Cuba
d. Mexico

2. She was famous for the mixture of Latin sounds known as ____________ .
a. the blues
b. salsa
c. jazz
d. folk music

3. In the sixties, Cruz left her country because of _______________ .
a. her desire to study other forms of music
b. her education
c. her marriage to Pedro Knight
d. the revolution and Fidel Castro

4. In the song "Caramelos", Celia Cruz tells the story of _____________ .
a. a candy seller
b. a type of caramel
c. a candy factory
d. a compulsive candy addict

5. For her live performances, Celia Cruz usually wore _______________ .
a. wildly colorful clothing
b. no make up at all
c. shoes without high heels
d. an evening gown with lots of jewelry

6. Most of the time, when you listen to Celia Cruz, you feel like _______________ .
a. shouting
b. dancing
c. meditating
d. falling asleep

7. Cuban music is heavily influenced by rhythms and sounds that are ______________ .
a. American
b. European
c. African
d. Asian

8. The credit for discovering the wonderful voice of Celia Cruz should go to _____________.
a. the Cuban people
b. the New York music scene
c. La Sonora Matancera
d. Los Angeles music critics

9. Another name for this article could be "________________ ."
a. Cuba's Influence on Salsa
b. Celia Cruz's Salsa Sounds
c. La Sonora Matacera's Singers
d. New York's Musical Experiments

10. This article is mainly about ________________ .
a. types of Latin music
b. a master of the Salsa voice
c. a wild journey through the history of Salsa
d. types of salsa found in restaurants

National Hispanic Heritage Month: September 15th to October 15th.